Let’s Make Something Together

I’m here to share my extensive electronics and technical experience working with Arduino, Raspberry Pi, sensors, motors, lighting, and finishing with CNC machining and 3D Printing.

What would you like to make?  Leave your comment and let’s get started!

Existential Crisis – Role-Playing Game Simulator

I awake in the labyrinth, no memory of who I am. All I know is that I must find the key to the portal that will take me to the next part of this endless maze. Stalking its passages, I find a rusty sword and take it in hand. Further along, I find an old chest of armor. Now my enemies will never defeat me! I stalk endless corridors, searching for the key. As I turn a corner, I see one of my enemies coming towards me, axe in hand. We clash, weapons slashing! My enemy flees, but I let him go – I must continue my quest to find the key. No matter how long it takes me.

Peek through the portal into the world of Existential Crisis. In this unique and hand-crafted electronic dungeon crawl simulator, watch the valiant hero compete against his enemies to find weapons and other items to aid him in his ultimate quest: to find the key and open the portal before they do! Watch as he uses magic potions to heal himself or blast his foes. Sigh when he makes a wrong turn and misses the key. Groan when he is vanquished by his foes. And cheer when he unlocks the portal and completes his quest – only to find it start all over again!

Existential Crisis isn’t like other games, because I designed it so you can’t control the hero. We can peer through the window into his universe, but we can’t help as he struggles to find a way to survive long enough to complete his quest.

 

Simulation of role-playing adventure or Multi-User Dungeons (MUDs), similar to NetHack, using basic rules of Dungeons & Dragons with a feel similar to Gauntlet or Diablo.

The pictures and video do not fully capture the brilliant color when seeing it for yourself.

 

The project makes a visually interesting simulation of a character wandering through a maze, looking for a key and trying to find the door to exit, only to be stuck repeating this for all eternity. Other enemy players try to kill the main character, can pick-up and use items including the key to open the door, resetting the maze. When any character dies, within a matter of time, regenerated with randomly selected base stats; forever stuck looking for potions to stay alive a little longer only to find another key and another door.
IMG_20190605_094809140
Existential Crisis

 

This simulation covers the basic motivation of fighting to stay alive in an effort to find the key hidden in the current map and then locate the door to exit.
Each player has hit-points, armor class, experience points, and can hold up to three items. Each map contains a key, and a randomly selected number of rewards, or items to help the player. Items available are: a potion of healing, a better weapon, better armor, or a magic scroll.
A 64 RGB LEDs in an 8×8 display is used as the ‘viewer’ into the World of the simulation, displaying only a quadrant section of the overall map at one time. As the primary player moves around the map, the ‘viewer’ display moves to the relevant section.

Color Code:

  • RED – Opponent Player Characters ( Enemies )
  • GREEN – Main Player Character ( Game Focus )
  • BLUE – Wall
  • WHITE – Door
  • YELLOW – Key

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mini-Animations:

  • Find a key
  • Find / Use armor
  • Find / Use weapon
  • Use a potion
  • Use magic
  • Open door using key
  • Player death
IMG_20190605_095429098
RGB LED Matrix
I have also included numbers 1 – 20 for showing the result of a simulated die roll. However, showing the number each time the player rolls is annoying so this animation has been disabled.
How the Simulation Works
On each turn, a player object executes the function WhatAreMyOptions
  • Move ( Direction Available: North, East, South, West ) A proximity-check to opponents is made to determine options. Short-term Memory of locations explored. Coordinates of recent moves are stored in the player object in an effort to reduce looping.
  • Attack: Each player rolls a 20-sided die trying to meet or exceed the Armor Class value of the opponent. Upon a successful hit, the player then rolls a 4-sided die for damage and applies any bonuses. The total damage is subtracted from the opponent’s hit points.
  • Check Inventory and Use Item.

 

Potential for Expansion using I2C

  • Add additional microcontroller or Raspberry Pi for Neural Network.
  • Add better controls, such as push-buttons, and even sensors.
  • Add a sound-effects module
  • Additional visual displays.

More About Electronics:

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More About Indoor Gardening:

How To Backup and Restore your Inventory Management System

There are two important sections of The Inventory Management System that need to be backup and/or restore. The system stores images that are uploaded in a directory within the source-code. Backup this directory or the entire application to a folder on your file system.

Example:

sudo cp -R /var/www/html/warehouse-inventory-system /home/pi/Downloads/

Backup and Restore Your Database

Export A Database

To Export a database, open up terminal, making sure that you are not logged into MySQL and type,

mysqldump -u [username] -p [database name] > [database name].sql

Backup your Inventory Management System

mysqldump -u'root' -p'password' oswa_inv > /path/to/oswa_inv.sql

The database that selected in the command will now be exported to a file.

Import

Log into mysql command-line interface:

mysql -u'username' -p'password'

If you are having difficulty logging into mysql please see the section below, How to Reset Your Password

WARNING! You are about to permanently delete ALL of your data.

DROP DATABASE oswa_inv;
CREATE DATABASE oswa_inv;
source oswa_inv < /path/to/oswa_inv.sql

Exit mysql.

How to Reset Your Password

When you first install MySQL, you have to set up your root password. However, should you forget it at any point, you can still recover it.

Step One—Shut Down MySQL

In terminal, stop the MySQL process

 /etc/init.d/mysql stop

Step Two—Access MySQL Safe Mode

In safe mode, you will be able to make changes within the MySQL system with a root password alone, without the need for MySQL root password.

sudo mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &

Once safe mode has started up, log into MySQL and when prompted, use your standard root password.

mysql -u root mysql

Step Three—Set Up a New Password

Finally, set up the new MySQL root password by typing the command below. Replace “newpassword” with the password of your choice.

update user set password=PASSWORD("newpassword") where User='root';

Be sure to reload everything:

 FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

and you now have a new root password.

More About Electronics:

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Using a Raspberry Pi for your own Inventory Management System

Using a Raspberry Pi for your own inventory management system.

An open-source, inventory management system written in PHP with a MySQL database has no problem operating on a Raspberry Pi. Initially, you’ll only have local network access, but if you want to allow remote web access, you can.

In order to setup a web interface to access, view, and manage the content of your inventory management system you’ll need to set up a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack on your Raspberry Pi and configure it to work as a web server and set up a basic website which you can access on any device on the same network as your Pi.

If you plan on having access to your Raspberry Pi through the Internet, you’ll need to configure your router and DDNS settings, or use a service such as dataplicity.io to wormhole to your pi through the web.

Next step is to use an open-source project found on GitHub to start your basic inventory management system.

“OSWA-Inv is a web based Inventory System, that will allow you to keep tracking of the quantity buying and selling price of the products existing in your warehouse or business. When creating a new products, you can set a quantity, buying and selling price.”

Included Features:

  • User Management: Groups, Basic Profile, and Change Password
  • Categories: For organizing products
  • Products: Basic product information, title, quantity, pricing.
  • Sales: Sales transactions are individual by product.
  • Reports: Daily, Monthly, and Ranged Dates Sales/Profit Report

InventoryProducts

Install the Basic Inventory Management System Web Application

After updating the Raspberry Pi and setting up the LAMP stack, installation of the inventory application is relatively painless.

Download the source-code package and then you’ll need to extract the contents to the folder. Either rename the folder to the base name now or after you move it to the web root for Apache Web Server found at /var/www/html/

Use the MySQL/MariaDB command line to import the database schema. Create a database named oswa_inv and import the schema included in the project directory oswa_inv.sql If you haven’t done so, installation is as easy as:

sudo mysql -uroot

mysql> CREATE DATABASE oswa_inv;
mysql> USE oswa_inv;
mysql> source /var/www/html/inventory/oswa_inv.sql

The directory containing the project, especially, the uploads directory, must have write permissions on the system and let the web application be run using the www-data account by executing the following commands from the project directory:

sudo chmod -R 775 uploads/
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data *

Edit the header.php file to suit the needs of your organization. e.g. change to logo
[project folder on server]/layouts/header.php
Same folder also contains the various menus used by the system.

Edit the CSS to reflect the needs of your organization. e.g. change background colors
[project folder on server]/libs/css/main.css

InventoryAdmin

Using the Inventory Management System

  • Secure the default accounts with a change password.
  • Create a user account for each person using the system, including yourself.
    Optionally upload a photo for the user.
  • Add Categories – you’ll need to add at least one category before you can add products.
  • Add Media before you Add Product if you want to associate a photo when you Add Product. Otherwise, you can elect to have no image and updated later.
  • Add Order – before you try to Add Sales.

Improvements

These are the improvements I’ve added for my own system

  • Delete confirmation popup before delete actions
  • Description column for products
  • Location column for products
  • View products by category
  • Add sales from list of products – remove selected from list.
  • Add/Edit/Delete Sales also updates product’s quantity available
  • Order Management for all sales – All sales must be associated with an order number
  • View Sales by Order calculate total
  • Delete Order: deletes all sales associated with order AND restores quantity/stock
  • Add/Edit/Delete Order also updates product’s quantity available
  • Stock: Inventory Management for all products – Log of increase/decrease stock
  • Add/Edit/Delete Inventory also updates product’s quantity available

Improved Version Source-Code

mmexport1472732631987

Basic Inventory Management System Web Application

I’ve spent a great deal of time searching for the right inventory management system for my work. I want the system to be relatively simple, straightforward, with only the necessary bells and whistles. Perhaps, even more important to me is the ability to modify the system to suit my needs. It’s rare to find an off-the-shelf product that can be modified or enhanced to suit needs. Fortunately, there are several open-source projects on GitHub related to Inventory Management System projects. I need to be able to customize the project to suit my needs. Similar to WordPress, the project I have selected is written in PHP and uses a MySQL database.

https://github.com/siamon123/warehouse-inventory-system

“OSWA-Inv is a web based Inventory System, that will allow you to keep tracking of the quantity buying and selling price of the products existing in your warehouse or business. When creating a new products, you can set a quantity, buying and selling price.”

Want more? Check-out the improvements I’ve made:

InventoryAdmin

Wired or Wireless?

Electricity replaces the sun, wind, and some natural processes as the dependency for plants to grow indoors.  

Starting a Smart Indoor Garden

The first glaring problem with the typical indoor garden is that extension wires are annoying and a potential safety hazard.  On the other hand, wireless communications can lack the reliability of the wired variant.  Going further, should the system be available to the local network or should it be connected to the Internet?

Since plants do not need Internet access in order to grow then we are potentially creating an additional dependency that the plant doesn’t want. The Internet is useful for providing access to your system, but security is questionable, how much control or data should be available?  A connection to the Internet can become another dependency if the system cannot operate without communication to a cloud-based or otherwise remote server. If something can fail; we should plan for the eventual occurrence of that possibility as best as possible. If a long electrical outage were to occur it would be prudent to have a backup generator, or solar rechargeable battery storage system.  If we can have better reliability with a wired connection, then it makes sense to use a combination of wired and wireless.

Next:  Getting Wired and Wireless

Communication options such as i2c, which is great for communicating with another microcontroller or Raspberry Pi and the many wireless options: WiFi, bluetooth, etc.

  • Remote Control using a RF 315MHz / 433MHz
  • Lightweight Bluetooth ( nRF24L01 )
  • Bluetooth ( HC-05 )
  • WiFi Module ( ESP8266 / CC3000 ) etc.

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Why Arduino when you can Pi?

Arduino
Arduino ProMini, Uno, and Nano on expansion board.

Why Arduino?

The greatest advantage to using the Arduino family of microcontrollers for DIY electronics projects, is that they are ubiquitous.  Since they are so available, they are inexpensive and you can find open-source software to get started.

If you’ve ever had the opportunity to work with an Arduino Uno microcontroller board, then you’ve probably executed the flashing LED example.  Going further, you might attach a button, or switch, to trigger the LED or to turn it off making the project interactive.  There are many sensors that could be connected to the Arduino Uno and setup to trigger events, such as the LED flashing, using threshold values that we would need to experiment with in order to figure out what settings work best for creating the effect we want.

While the examples that come with the Arduino software and the examples included with libraries are an excellent start to a project; the Arduino family of microcontrollers is often grossly underutilized in many projects.  Sure microcontrollers are limited in how many instructions they can run; hitting the program size limit doesn’t take very long when you want to control more than a few blinking LEDs.  Even with creative variable handling and custom libraries, eventually, there is a need for another microcontroller or to move to a larger one, even a Raspberry Pi.

In my Alien Invasion Slot Machine project, I tried to push the Arduino closer to its limits.

Time Management and state and trigger flagsf0zk2etiagml1az-medium

At its most basic, a microcontroller loops through a set of instructions handling each action with the focus of The Red Eye of Sauron from Lord of the Rings.  There are a few interrupts that can be configured should an event be so important to receive the full attention of the microcontroller.  Using some form of time management creates a state machine. If x amount of time has passed since x event, then do something and so on…

“The behavior of state machines can be observed in many devices in modern society that perform a predetermined sequence of actions depending on a sequence of events with which they are presented. Simple examples are vending machines, which dispense products when the proper combination of coins is deposited, elevators, whose sequence of stops is determined by the floors requested by riders, traffic lights, which change sequence when cars are waiting, and combination locks, which require the input of combination numbers in the proper order.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite-state_machine

There are rare instances where: RTOS, AI, neural networks exist on microcontrollers, but that’s best left to software-oriented systems such as a Raspberry Pi.

After trying many different timer and time management libraries I felt they were either too much or not enough of what I was wanting in my timers.  A set of timers that are easy to set, keep track of their own state, and each have their own trigger flags.

Button assumptions

buttons

Interacting with an electronics device such as a microcontroller or computer system is relatively easy and typically provided as an example for developers looking to use the device in their project.  Press a button and an LED illuminates. A button or switch may seem like a simple sensor input, but it’s not.

The device’s system resources are consumed waiting and watching for a button press. When we use a button in a project we typically think of it being activated when pressed.  Then what? What should happen if the user holds the button in the active position? Will the button be counted as pressed once, or is the program going to count each second, or x amount of time, as another button press?  Does the program need to know that the button has been released?

Hardware and wiring

wiring harness

Rather than using the Arduino Uno and a protoboard or breadboard for this project, I’m using the Arduino Nano on an expansion board.  Keep it simple using common wiring colors, keep it modular so connections can be made with ease, keep your project sustainable; a part can be replaced rather than the entire system.  The DuPont wire connectors that come with prototyping starter kits makes it easy to create your own custom wiring connections. The wires are easy to solder when a more permanent connection is needed.  I make custom wiring harnesses for neater, cleaner, and more easily connectable modules.

 

Raspberry Pipi3

The latest version of the Raspberry Pi v3 uses a Linux OS and is a computer that can do so much more than an Arduino Uno, why not just use it for everything?  While it is possible to do many of the same tasks as you would do with the Arduino Uno or variant, it’s not always best.  The Arduino Uno and variant microcontrollers are best for doing the same actions, over and over again, such as reading a sensor and doing something with the value.

As I mentioned previously, you can do a lot with a Raspberry Pi, and depending on how much you are doing, it won’t take too long before you discover it has limits.  When the Pi overheats, it will either freeze or shutdown, hopefully, the processor has a heatsink.

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Why DIY when you could buy?

You value the project because you are able to customize and experience the process of its creation, both physically and mentally.

Practical Reasons:

  • Integrity and dependency on specific vendor:  Complete packages are limited in capability and scalability, also they often include unwanted strings attached, i.e. Advertisements; company owns your data for purposes of profiting by selling for marketing purposes.  Mass produced products are typically not designed for longevity. Can the equipment be repaired or is it disposable?
  • People have complex preferences and want more customizable, possibly less expensive solutions, typically with the trade-off related to labor, can be improved or perform to preferred standards
  • Interest in learning and/or educating others:  You enjoy or have an interest in the activities associated with the process of a subject.
  • Necessity:  Resources and costs vary by region.
  • What else?

Cost considerations

Many items can be purchased locally or sourced from the Worldwide market through the Internet.  I don’t know about you, but I rarely have money to spend on projects and whenever possible reusing and re-purposing junk is ideal.  Many of my projects contain parts I’ve purchased at local dollar stores and items found through eBay online vendors. Online researching, reviewing, and sourcing materials

Time

It takes time to learn how to use tools and equipment successfully, let alone, have the time to actually make the project meet your expectations.  Will you take the time to safely use the equipment necessary to complete the project?  Are you able and willing to troubleshoot problems as they arise?

Time used for the project is time that could be spent with family, friends, learning something more important, etc.

Skill and Ability

Even though it may pain me to swallow my pride, I try not reinvent the wheel.  If I don’t have direct experience performing a task, I take the time to research how others have approached similar problems.  It is best to learn from others before making a serious mistake simply because I don’t want to appear stupid. Practice makes permanent. We cannot expect to become experts on a subject overnight, it’s okay not to know how to do something, try to find someone who can help, take small simple steps towards achieving the goal.

Resources for DIY Hacking Electronics:

For electronics projects, reliably wiring the hardware and designing the software to operate using an Arduino variant or Raspberry Pi, is a challenge.  Hacking Electronics – Simon Monk ( link to Amazon ).  Regardless of your experience level, this book is an excellent resource, what tools are needed, when and how to solder, and many basic fundamentals of working with modern electronics.  The second edition, includes Raspberry Pi.

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Using a Raspberry Pi and USB Camera

You have a Raspberry Pi, or are comfortable with the idea of using one, and you want to use it to capture video or images using a USB camera.  Even though the Raspberry Pi has a port designed specifically for using a camera, it’s not as low-cost, nor as convenient as the USB corded camera.

CanaKit Raspberry Pi 3 B+ (B Plus) Starter Kit (32 GB EVO+ Edition, Premium Black Case)

It would be a lot nicer if you had a web interface to access, view, and manage the content you’ve capture using the USB camera.  Learn to set up a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack on your Raspberry Pi and configure it to work as a web server and set up a basic website which you can access on any device on the same network as your Pi.  This is a link to a nice tutorial for setting-up a L.A.M.P. server on your Pi, the WordPress portion is optional, you can stop after installing PHP. 

Motion

Motion is the tool that you will want to use if you want to live stream, record video, capture motion, and grab a lot of snapshots.  More options means a lot more configuration options making setup more complex.

download and install:

  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get upgrade
  • sudo apt-get install motion

usage:  See /etc/motion/ for configuration file(s).  The documentation for Motion is contained within the file motion_guide.html.

The offline version of this file is available in the doc/motion directory. The online version of the motion_guide.html file can be viewed here

growrm2

fswebcam

fswebcam is a simple tool for grabbing snapshots using a USB connected camera and  can be configured to execute routinely using the operating system’s cron job scheduler.

download and install:

  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get upgrade
  • sudo apt-get install fswebcam

usage:  https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/usage/webcams/

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Make a Touch Screen Kiosk

touch screen

Raspberry Pi 7″ Touchscreen Display

AND

SmartiPi Touch case for The Official Raspberry Pi 7″ Touchscreen Display – Adjustable Angle